Heat treatment methods raw milk
Milk from prehistoric times is a crucial element of human nutrition both in the early stages of his life and later.
It is the most complete, simple, natural food because it contains ingredients such as fat and lactose, which give the human body energy, proteins and minerals, which contribute to its structural components and in addition contains a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals to carry out the necessary biochemicals its processes. All species of mammals use their Milk for the food of their newborns in the early stages of life. Humans also use the Milk of other mammals, such as cows, the main mammals today, and sheep, goats, and buffaloes. And in fact, at all stages of his life.
Cow’s whole Milk contains an average of 3.7% fat, 4.7% lactose, 3.2% protein (casein and its proteins serum) and 0.7% minerals (mainly calcium and phosphorus), components that primarily identify its nutritional value. However, it is also an excellent source of specific vitamins, minerals and enzymes. Recent studies show that a large part of the biological value of Milk is because its proteins are a source of bioactive peptides, which have a unique action (e.g. antihypertensive, anticoagulant, antioxidant, hypercholesterolemia).
Also, its fat Milk contains ingredients such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which protect against chronic diseases. But milk is also a rich layer nutrient for many microorganisms, which can cause its deterioration. The milk, which comes from healthy animals at the time of milking, contains a few hundred germs per ml, but with its removal from the breast develops microorganisms that originate from the animal’s body, from the milking equipment and the environment in general of the cowshed.
It also grows microorganisms and during its handling, processing and maintenance. According to European legislation, cow’s milk intended for human consumption or processing must come from healthy animals, the total microbial of flora to be <100,000 microorganisms per ml milk and its content in somatic cells be <400,000 per ml of milk (Regulation (EC) 1662/2006). If found in the right conditions, the microorganisms in milk multiply, resulting in milk spoilage (mainly bad fat, lactose and protein).
One of the most critical factors affecting the proliferation of microorganisms in fresh milk is its storage temperature until its moment processing. It has been found to keep fresh milk at a temperature of less than 4o C slows down the proliferation of microorganisms. The raw milk, from the moment it arrives at the dairy and until it is delivered to the consumer as a finished product to what extent, undergoes the following processes:
- Purification, which is done by filtration or by the technique of clarification. When clearing, the milk is cleaned with centrifugation, and in addition, deodorization is achieved and removal of somatic cells.
- Standardization so that its main components (mainly the meet the requirements of the chemical composition as defined by law (e.g. milk lean or reduced fat content).
- Homogenization, so that the drinking milk is homogeneous appearance without fat separation on the surface
- Heat treatment so that the milk will be delivered to consumers free from pathogens and allogeneic microorganisms. Commercially the heat treatment of milk began to apply in the late 19th century, and the primary purpose was the inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a microorganism responsible for tuberculosis, a disease scourge for the people at that time.